In many cities and all over the world, there is a serious shortage of water supplies. What are the causes of and solutions to the scarcity of water resource? Write an essay of about 400 words. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.
In the ﬁrst part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks .
On Water Scarcity
Water, as one of the most important natural resources, is facing serious scarcity. A recent survey conducted by Greenpeace revealed that over two thirds of the nations in the world were afﬂicted with severe water shortage. Hence, it is essential that we ascertain the causes of this phenomenon and identify the effective solutions.
A number of factors could account for the problem, but the following might be the critical ones. First of all, it is generally arguable that the population explosion is the root cause of the crisis. To illustrate, over the past half a century, the world population has more than doubled and this growth rate shows no sign of slowing down. Therefore, household and industrial use of water has been shooting up since the end of World War II. Further, water resource is polluted by the industrial wastes produced by factories and companies. For instance, currently, a vast number of factories dump their wastes into rivers and lakes, which seriously undermines the world’s eco-system. Finally, the shortage of fresh water can also be attributed to the lower efﬁ ciency in water utilization. Some developing countries still use the primitive irrigation system, which is believed to waste at least 70% fresh water. In most cities in China, fresh water is used to ﬂush lavatories.
Moreover, most citizens use a wash-machine, which consumes a larger volume of fresh water. In view of the seriousness of the problem, effective measures must be taken before things get worse. Firstly, it is essential that laws and regulations be worked out and enforced to protect water resource. Secondly, national infrastructure has to be improved. For example, new dams should be built and new technology should be invented to save water scientiﬁ cally. Thirdly, man must do his utmost to ﬁ nd alternative sources of fresh water. Research has proved that we can transform seawater into drinking water with the help of modern technology. Last but not the least, governments in all countries should give priority to6 the controlling of the staggering increase of thepopulation. It is necessary that other nations learn from China’s success in curbing its population surge over the past three decades.
Above all, we should not forget the importance of water or waste it unnecessarily. Any kind of drought is always a reminder that we should never take our water for granted and that every drop counts. Therefore, we should take effective steps, including birth control, promotion of sustainable development, and research about new water resource, to alleviate this modern-day scourge .
be afflicted with ：受 ……的折磨
ascertain ：查 明，弄清
root cause ：根本原 因
shoot up ：猛增
do one s utmost ：尽某人最大的力量
give priority to ：把……放在首位
curb its population surge ：抑制它的人 口暴增趋势
To illustrate, over the past half a century, the world population has more than doubled and this growth rate shows no sign of slowing down.
本句最大的特色在于一些短语的使用，如to illustrate、more than doubled、no sign of slowing down，这些表达既有新意又相当准确。本句句意为：例如，在过去的半个世纪中，全世界的人口翻了一倍多，而且这种增长速度并没有任何减缓的迹象。
Any kind of drought is always a reminder that we should never take our water for granted and that every drop counts.
Any kind of drought is always a reminder...的意思是Any kind of drought always reminds us... ，即“任何形式的干旱都是在提醒我们 ……”。本句句意为 ：任何形式的干旱都是在提醒我们不应该再把水看作是理所当然的东西，每一滴水都是重要的。
语言是本文的一大亮点，作者用词准确、语言表达地道、句式丰富多变。在结构安排上，作者严格遵循了问题解决型文章的基本结构 ，主题句 “Hence, it is essential that we ascertain the causes of this phenomenon and identify the effective solutions.”既统领全文 ，又暗含了主体部分的主要内容：即先分析原因，再提出有效方法 。在两段主体段落中，作者主要采用了分类论证和举例论证的方法，尤其在分析原因部分，作者将缺水的原因大致分为三类 ，即人口爆炸、水污染、水资源浪费，并辅以恰当的例证，逻辑性强。此外，作者大量使用连词，如 ：first of all, further, finally等等，这些连词很好地将全文的内容连接在了一起。在结尾部分，作者向大家发起节水的号召 ，并总结了上文提出的解决方法 。全文结构完整、论述方式多样、很有说服力 。