Should governments spend more money in improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money in improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use speciﬁc reasons and details to write an essay of about 400 words. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.
In the ﬁrst part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks .
Highways or Public Transportation
Should governments spend more money in improving roads and highways or in improving public transportation? There seems to be a difficult problem since many reasons should be involved. However, after carefully pondering, I buttress spending the money in improving public transportation. The reasons are presented below:
There is no denying that improving public transportation will surely alleviate the pollution caused by numerous cars. If a city has not a developed public transportation, the air will be polluted more heavily. What a dirty environment we will live in! Breathing in the air ﬁlled with the flavor of the gasoline, seeing the sky with the dull color will be the title of our daily life. Fortunately, the essence of environment has been realized by an increasingly number of people. To the governments, the protection of environment is especially an undeniable mission.
Another reason I agree with is that developed public transportation will decrease the frequency of trafﬁc jams. Perhaps no worse word than “trafﬁc jams” exists, to the businessmen who believe in “time is money”. Trafﬁc jams not only cost people the time and expenses, but also create a bad mood for work. It greatly decreases the efﬁciency of the whole city. How a city whose avenues are full of trafﬁ c jams can develop its economy.
Finally, I want to say that improving public transportation provides ways of transportation for most of poor people who cannot afford to buy a car. It is known that our citizens are not made of people who have the ability to own a car, only I believe that no matter how advanced our society will be, the public apparatus should never be ignored, because it serves people all over the city.
Nevertheless, private transportation has its own advantages. For instance, it can save a lot of time in some cases, and provide some conveniences for people. But improving roads and highways is advantageous only conditionally . Based in the above discussion, I agree with the opinion that governments should spend money in improving public transportation because it can not only protect environment and save time for people, but also create a convenient environment for all the citizens.
apparatus ：机构 ，组织
There is no denying that improving public transportation will surely alleviate the pollution caused by numerous cars.
本句以“There is no denying that...”开头，与句中的surely一词相呼应，表明作者强烈的肯定语气。本句句意为：毋庸置疑，改善公共交通肯定能缓解大量汽车所造成的污染。
Breathing in the air filled with the flavor of the gasoline, seeing the sky with the dull color will be the title of our daily life.
本文以设问句开篇，直截了当，引人瞩目。第一段的最后一句“The reasons are presented below.”暗示了全文的结构 ，即接下来主体部分将就为何发展公共交通更为重要提出几点理由。作者在论证部分主要采用了说理论证和因果论证的方法，逻辑性强，论证充分有力，让人信服。本文的结尾部分是一大亮点。与一般总结性结尾不同，作者先介绍了反方的观点，即修建改善道路的好处；接着马上对此进行反驳，指出修建改善道路所带来的好处是有条件的；最后，作者呼吁政府大力发展公共交通，因为这不仅可以保护环境、节省时间，还可以为所有市民创建便捷的环境。这样的结尾先抑后扬，使整篇文章的内容更为充实，论证更为有力 。