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2017两会热<a href=http://www.hxen.com/word/ target=_blank class=infotextkey>词汇</a>总

1. 蓝天保卫战
make our skies blue again

Delivering the Government Work Report to the Fifth Plenary Session of the 12th National People's Congress on Sunday, Premier Li Keqiang said effective steps will be taken to tackle air pollution and "make our skies blue again".

李克强在会上表示,加快改善环境(faster progress in the work of improving the environment),特别是空气质量(air quality),是人民群众的迫切愿望,是可持续发展(sustainable development)的内在要求。必须科学施策、标本兼治(tackle both symptoms and root causes)、铁腕治理(fight it with all our might),努力向人民群众交出合格答卷。

根据政府工作报告,二氧化硫(sulfur dioxide)、氮氧化物(oxynitride)排放量要分别下降3%,重点地区(key areas)细颗粒物浓度明显下降(a sharp decline in the density of fine particulate matter, or PM2.5)。为实现打好"蓝天保卫战"的目标(the goal of defending blue sky),一要加快解决燃煤污染问题(accelerate solving the problem of pollution caused by coal burning);二要全面推进污染源治理(promote control of pollution sources in an all-round way);三要强化机动车尾气治理(strengthen management of vehicle emissions);四要有效应对重污染天气;五要严格环境执法(strictly enforce environmental laws)和督查问责(oversight and accountability)。

李克强称,治理雾霾人人有责(tackling smog is down to every last one of us),贵在行动、成在坚持(success depends on action and commitment)。全社会不懈努力(as long as the whole of our society keeps trying),蓝天必定会一年比一年多起来(we will have more and more blue skies with each passing year)。

2. 一带一路高峰论坛
high-level Belt & Road Initiative forum

Leaders of more than 20 countries will attend a high-level Belt and Road Initiative forum in Beijing in May, joining more than 50 leaders of international organizations, 100 ministerial representatives and a total of 1,200 guests across the world, said Foreign Minister Wang Yi on Wednesday at a news conference during the two sessions.

王毅称,"一带一路"是中国的,但更是世界的(the Belt and Road Initiative came from China but it belongs to the world)。"一带一路"版权虽属中国,但收益为各国共享。习近平主席提出"一带一路"倡议三年多来,成为迄今最受欢迎的国际公共产品(the most popular international public product),也是目前前景最好的国际合作平台(the best international cooperation forum by far)。

王毅称,在当前保护主义、单边主义抬头的情况下(face the rising protectionism and unilateralism),"一带一路"是各国撸起袖子一起干的共同事业(a common cause that requires all countries to roll up their sleeves),有助于推动经济全球化朝着更加普惠、包容的方向来实现再平衡(help rebalance economic globalization by making it more universally beneficial and inclusive),当然也将成为共建人类命运共同体的重要实践(an important practice to build a human community with shared destiny)。

3. 民法总则
general provisions of civil law

National lawmakers on Wednesday started to deliberate draft general provisions of civil law, which, if adopted, will bring the country one step closer to a civil code.

这是对民法总则草案(draft general provisions of civil law)的第四次审议(the fourth review)。2014年10月,党的十八届四中全会(the Forth Plenary Session of the 18th Communist Party of China Central Committee)提出要编纂民法典(civil code);次年3月,中办、国办(the general offices of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the State Council)授权全国人大常委会法工委负责协调民法典编纂任务,并指定包括最高法(the Supreme People's Court)和最高检(the Supreme People's Procuratorate)在内的五个单位提供研究协助;去年4月,全国人大常委会(Standing Committee of the National People's Congress)将制定民法总则列入了2016年立法工作计划;两月后,十二届全国人大常委会第二十一次会议初次审议民法总则草案;去年10月、12月,十二届全国人大常委会第二十四次会议、第二十五次会议分别二审、三审草案。


绿色原则 green principle

In their civil activities, civil subjects must be aware of the need to save resources and protect the environment.

胎儿民事权利 civil law rights of fetuses

Fetuses that require protection for the succession of estates and reception of donations shall be deemed as having the capacity for civil law rights.

限制民事行为能力年龄 the statutory age limit of minors with limited capacity for civil conduct

The draft lowers the statutory age limit of minors with limited capacity for civil conduct from 10 to six years.

网络虚拟财产保护 protection of online virtual assets

People's personal information is protected by law. No individual shall illegally collect, use, process and transmit personal information, nor should they illegally trade, disseminate or disclose any personal information.

见义勇为 acting voluntarily to help another in emergency

A person shall not bear civil responsibilities if he acts voluntarily to help another in emergency and inflicts losses on the one being helped.

4. 国资监管
State-owned capital supervision

China will continue to deepen the reform of State-owned enterprises (SOEs) and further strengthen State-owned capital supervision to ensure their safety and appreciation this year, Xiao Yaqing, chairman of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, said on Thursday at a news conference during the two sessions.

肖亚庆表示,今年国企管理和改革(the management and reform of SOEs)有三个重点:加强国有资本监管(strengthen State-owned capital supervision)、强化风险控制(enhance risk control)以及深化国企改革(deepen SOEs reform)。我国将采取一系列的改革措施提高国有企业在国际市场的收益(improve SOEs' revenue in global markets)。这些措施包括:混合所有制改革(mixed-ownership reform),设立资产管理公司(establishment of asset management companies),以及国企股权多元化(diversification of SOE equity)。

国资委副主任黄丹华称,国资委今年国资监管的重点将从之前的管理国企本身(govern SOEs themselves)转向管理其资产(manage their assets),减少资源浪费(cut resource waste),提高工作效率(improve work efficiency)。

5. 长途漫游费
long-distance and roaming fees

China's three major telecom carriers announced on Monday they will scrap domestic long-distance and roaming charges starting Oct 1, following Premier Li Keqiang's promise in the Government Work Report.

5日,国务院总理李克强在政府工作报告中指出,今年网络提速降费要迈出更大步伐(do more to increase broadband speed and lower rates for internet services),年内全部取消手机国内长途和漫游费(mobile rates for domestic roaming and long-distance calls will be cancelled),大幅降低中小企业互联网专线接入资费(rates for broadband services for small and medium enterprises will be slashed),降低国际长途电话费(rates for international calls will be lowered),推动"互联网+"深入发展(push forward with the Internet Plus action plan)、促进数字经济加快成长(speed up the development of the digital economy)。

6日,工业和信息化部副部长陈肇雄在国新办发布会上表示,今年10月1日起将全面取消手机长途漫游费(remove completely the domestic long-distance and roaming tariffs for mobile users)。下一步,工信部还将扩大国内互联网网间带宽,提升互联网国际出入口带宽能力,推进农村宽带全覆盖(full coverage of access to broadband networks in rural areas),完善老旧小区光纤入户政策;规范企业资费行为(regulate the tariff-setting behaviors of enterprises),促进良性竞争(promote healthy competition),持续优化电信市场环境(continue to improve market environment of telecommunications)。

漫游费指在手机号码归属地以外的地区使用电信服务(use telecom services in places other than where the phone number is registered)所产生的额外费用(extra fees)。手机漫游费是2G时代的产物(a product of the 2G era),随着4G的快速普及(rapid popularization of 4G services),流量(traffic data)已经取代语音通话(voice call)成为运营商最大的收入来源。三大电信运营商(three major telecom carriers)近日均表示将取消国内漫游费,降低部分国际漫游费,转而寻求云计算(cloud computing)、大数据(big data)等新的业务增长来源(seek new sources of business growth)。

6. 全域旅游
all-for-one tourism

In the Government Work Report he delivered on Sunday, Premier Li Keqiang called for improved tourist facilities and services, and for a big push to develop rural tourism, recreational tourism and all-for-one tourism.

所谓"全域旅游(all-for-one tourism)",是指将一个区域作为旅游目的地(tourist destination)来建设和运作,实现区域资源有机整合、产业融合发展(integrated development)、社会共建共享,以旅游业带动和促进经济社会协调发展(promote coordinated development of the economy and society)。突破行业、部门、区域局限,把旅游业放到推进新型工业化、城镇化、信息化和农业现代化(promote a new type of industrialization, urbanization, IT application and agricultural modernization)的大格局中来谋划,促进旅游业与生态、文化、体育等产业深度融合(deep integration),形成多点支撑的(be driven by multiple props, be brought by multi-stimuli/multiple driving forces)大旅游发展格局。在"全域旅游"格局中,到处都是风景(scenery/landscape),而非到处都是景点景区(scenic spots and tourist sites);到处都有接待服务(reception services),而非到处都是宾馆饭店。

分析人士指出,"全域旅游"首次写入政府工作报告,契合了当下旅游业的发展趋势(in accordance with the current tourism trend),是对未来我国旅游业发展的重要引导(a significant guidance to the development of China's tourism in the future),旅游将从传统旅游发展到"旅行",进而发展到"旅居(sojourn)"。国家旅游局局长李金早表示,我国旅游正从"景点旅游"向"全域旅游"转变。在我国旅游发展的初级阶段,主要是建景点、景区、饭店、宾馆。然而旅游业发展到现在,已经到了全民旅游(mass tourism)和个人游(independent travel, individual tour)、自驾游(self-driving tour)为主的全新阶段,传统的景点旅游(tourism at scenic spots)模式已不能满足现代大旅游发展的需要。

7. 部长通道
ministers' passage

Ministers' passage in the Great Hall of People is the main place for journalists to conduct interviews with leading officials during the annual two sessions. The ministers' passage for this year's national two sessions officially opened on Friday afternoon.

部长通道是媒体记者(media reporters)的一个习惯叫法,指的是人民大会堂北门一段铺着红地毯(red carpet)、长约百米的通道。这条通道是每年列席两会的国务院各部部长(ministers from departments under the State Council) 、直属机构主要负责人进入会场的必经之路,也是新闻媒体(news media, the press)捕捉新闻的必争之地。媒体记者为了占据部长通道的有利位置(vantage point),往往都使出浑身解数(try all means, spare no efforts)。

从2008年开始,为了有序采访,工作人员在部长和采访人员(interviewers)之间拉了一道隔离线,测试了发言话筒(microphone)和音响,也为记者架设了摄像机、摄影机等设备。2015年以来,通道服务进一步改进。工作人员提前与部委沟通,邀请部委负责人及时来到现场接受采访,让部长们与记者的沟通更为顺畅,是两会民主、开放、透明(democracy, openness and transparency)的一个具体体现。据统计,2016年两会期间,这个部长通道共开通9次,共38人次的部委负责人站在了部长通道话筒前,回应中外记者提问70多次。

据了解,今年的部长通道得到国务院各个部门的积极响应。到场部长有望增加,将成为发布权威信息(release authoritative information),解读报告政策(interpret reports and policies),介绍工作情况,解答热点、难点问题(respond to hot issues and thorny issues)的重要场所。为更好搜集公众关心的热点问题,部长通道将在现场开通微信公号(WeChat official account),媒体记者扫描之后就可提交问题(submit questions)。记者问题也可以通过手机短信等其它形式提交。

8. 环境责任险
environmental pollution liability insurance

China is quickening the pace of putting together its compulsory environmental pollution liability insurance implementation plan-and joint regulation and product designs could be key issues, experts said on Monday.

The key areas the insurance projects cover include heavy industry, heavy metals, textile dyeing and printing and the chemical industries.

环境污染强制责任险(compulsory environmental pollution liability insurance,简称pollution insurance)是以企业发生污染事故对第三者造成损害依法应当承担的赔偿责任为标的的保险(the protection of the insured’s pollution liability toward third parties who have suffered a loss caused by the insured as its final object)。

环责险是综合责任险的一个分支(an outgrowth of comprehensive general liability insurance),于上世纪60年代在美国、法国及德国等工业化国家率先推出,以解决污染导致的赔偿责任超出综合责任险赔付能力的问题(the cost of pollution compensation exceeded risk coverage of comprehensive general liability insurance policies)。当时分为强制环责险(compulsory environmental pollution liability insurance)和自愿环责险(voluntary environmental pollution liability insurance)两种。美德两国主要实行强制险,法国实行自愿险。

2007年我国开始在部分地区开展环境污染责任保险试点(pilot projects);2013年2月保监会和环保部联合发文将试点范围扩大到全国。到目前为止,中国已经有30个省区市开展环境污染责任险的试点,包括重工业、重金属,还有印染、化工等行业。

保监会主席项俊波表示,保险公司不仅仅是一手收钱,一手搞理赔,还要为企业提供风险评估和建议(offer risk assessments and suggestions to companies)。这个方案出台以后,对大气治理、水污染治理、环境治理都有相当大的促进作用。

9. 减税降费
Cut taxes and administrative fees

China will cut taxes and administrative fees by 550 billion yuan ($79.7 billion) this year to further reduce the corporate burden and will roll out favorable tax policies to support small innovative and technology companies, Finance Minister Xiao Jie said on Tuesday.

“减税降费”具体包括“税收减免”(tax reduction and exemption)和“取消或停征行政事业性收费”(cancel or exempt administrative fees)两部分。

减税方面,全年将减税3500亿元左右,包括继续完善营改增试点政策(improve the pilot project to replace business tax with value-added tax)、将企业所得税减半征收优惠范围从年应纳税所得额30万元提高到50万元以下的小微企业(companies with annual taxable income lower than 500,000 yuan will have a 50 percent tax cut)、将研发费用加计扣除的比例由50%提高到了75%等。

个税改革方案(reform of personal income tax)将部分收入项目如工资薪金(salary)、劳务报酬(remuneration of labor)、稿酬(author’s remuneration)等,实行按年汇总纳税。财政部还将考虑适当增加与家庭生计相关的专项开支扣除项目(considering more tax cuts concerning family livelihood),比如有关“二孩”家庭的教育等支出,其他的专项扣除项目等。

降费方面,今年降费约2000亿元。财政部重点做好两项工作,包括全面清理规范政府性基金(government-managed funds),改革到位后全国政府性基金将剩下21项;取消或停征35项涉企行政事业性收费(administrative fees),中央涉企收费项目减少一半以上,将剩余33项。

10. 混合所有制改革
mixed-ownership reform

The government pledged to improve SOEs' revenue in global markets via a number of reform measures this year, including mixed-ownership reform, establishment of asset management companies and diversification of SOE equity.

《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》指出要积极发展混合所有制经济(mixed-ownership economy/mixed economy)。

国有资本(state-owned capital)、集体资本(collective capital)、非公有资本(non-public capital)等交叉持股、相互融合的混合所有制经济,是基本经济制度的重要实现形式(an important way to materialize the basic economic system),有利于国有资本放大功能、保值增值、提高竞争力(improving the amplification function of state-owned capital, ensuring the appreciation of its value and raising its competitiveness),有利于各种所有制资本取长补短、相互促进、共同发展。

允许更多国有经济和其他所有制经济发展成为混合所有制经济。国有资本投资项目允许非国有资本参股(allowing non-state-owned capital to hold shares in projects invested by state-owned capital)。允许混合所有制经济实行企业员工持股(allowing mixed enterprises to implement employee stock ownership plans),形成资本所有者和劳动者利益共同体(communities of capital owners and laborers)。

肖亚庆表示,今年国企管理和改革有三个重点:加强国有资本监管(strengthen State-owned capital supervision)、强化风险控制(enhance risk control)以及深化国企改革(deepen State-owned enterprise reform)。

今年政府工作报告中再次强调,深化混合所有制改革,在电力、石油、天然气、铁路、民航、电信、军工等七大领域迈出实质性步伐(we will deepen reform to establish mixed ownership systems, and make substantive progress in industries including electric power, petroleum, natural gas, railways, civil aviation, telecommunications, and defense),并将混改列入今年深化改革的重要领域和关键环节。

肖亚庆表示,2017年混合所有制的突破口要进一步扩大。央企混改层级根据企业实际情况来定,总之混改是要让各个股东方和利益方都能得到利益和好处(make sure that both stakeholder and shareholder can benefit from the reform)。